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Table 2 Composition and characteristics of biocrudes after upgrading

From: Potential yields and emission reductions of biojet fuels produced via hydrotreatment of biocrudes produced through direct thermochemical liquefaction

 Fast pyrolysisCatalytic pyrolysisHTL
Carbon (wt%)84.187.0985.888.2785.7788.67
Hydrogen (wt%)13.212.8413.410.7713.8511.61
Nitrogen (wt%)b.d.b.d.b.d.0.015< 0.75b.d.
Oxygen (wt%)0.510.641.240.951.78< 0.5
Sulfur (wt%)0.13b.d.b.d.b.d.0.13< 0.05
TAN (mg KOH/g)0.32b.d.0.48n.d.1.35b.d.
Density @ 15 °C (kg/m3)828.6845.6838.7857838.7899.9
Heat of combustion (net) (MJ/kg)45.5a42.36645.21a42.943.2a42.131
  1. b.d. below detection, n.d. not determined
  2. aGross heat of combustion (higher heating value)