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Table 4 How the characteristics of the various biojet fractions compare with ASTM D7566 specifications (listed in Table 1)

From: Potential yields and emission reductions of biojet fuels produced via hydrotreatment of biocrudes produced through direct thermochemical liquefaction

 Fast pyrolysisCatalytic pyrolysisHTL
CanmetPNNLCanmetPNNLCanmetPNNL
Composition
 Acidity, total mg KOH/g Max 0.100.0640.110.1010.0120.1000.014
 Aromatics, volume percent Max 2517.718.619.330.414.120.9
 Sulfur, mercaptan, mass percent Max 0.0030.0019< 0.00030.00030.0021Nd< 0.0003
 Sulfur, total mass percent Max 0.30 < 0.25 < 0.250.0518< 0.25
Volatility
 Flash point,  °C Min 38614358.534.559.034.5
 Density at 15 °C, kg/m3 775 to 840818.9843.4827.8852.6829.0853
Fluidity
 Freezing point,  °C Max − 47 Jet A-1I− 57.6− 46.7− 58.3< − 80− 45− 84
 Viscosity − 20 °C, mm2/s, Max 8.05.1645.1765.3063.4996.64.431
Combustion
 Net heat of combustion, MJ/kg Min 42.842.9242.24542.3242.47742.8542.55
 One of the following requirements shall be met:
 (1) Smoke point, mm, or Min 25.0
 (2) Smoke point, mm, Min 18.0 and naphthalenes, volume, percent Max 3.0
2118.32014.319.717
0.512.171.510.361.070.44
Corrosion
 Copper strip, 2 h at 100 °C Max No. 1 (3 is off spec)1b1a3a3b1a3a
Contaminants
 Existent gum, mg/100 ml Max 7152865< 1413
 Nitrogen, mg/kg Max 2 270 9.7< 0.1581
 Water, mg/kg Max 75138440159667974
 Sulfur, mg/kg Max 154801142339.30.0518 
 Oxygen wt%0.31.081.18< 0.012.420.13
  1. Off-specs are italicized