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Table 2 Application of various strategies to improve cellular performance for ABE fermentation

From: Pathway dissection, regulation, engineering and application: lessons learned from biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia

Strain Strategya Physiological characteristics (control/engineered strain) Refs.
Mutagenesis strategies
 C. acetobutylicum BKM19 Random mutagenesis, screening cells on fluoroacetate plates Butanol: 15.9/17.6 g/L
Total solvent: 24.9/32.5 g/L
 C. acetobutylicum JB200 Evolution in a fibrous bed bioreactor Butanol: 12.6/21.0 g/L
Total solvents: 19.4/32.6 g/L
 C. acetobutylicum GX01 NTG, genome shuffling and butanol exposure Butanol: 16.3/20.1 g/L
Total solvents: 26.4/32.6 g/L
Metabolic engineering strategies
 Enhancing butanol production
  C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Overexpressing both pfkA and pykA genes Butanol: 14.78/19.12 g/L
Total solvents: 21.76/28.02 g/L
  C. acetobutylicum JB200 Disrupting the cac3319 gene Butanol: 12.6/18.2 g/L [93]
  C. beijerinckii CC101 Overexpressing adhE2 and ctfAB Butanol: 2.6/12.0 g/L [223]
 Increasing butanol selectivity
  C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Knocking out solR Butanol: 5.48/17.79 g/L
Butanol ratio: 55%/66%
  C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 Disrupting the acetone pathway by TargeTron technology Butanol: 7.4/13.6 g/L
Butanol ratio: 71/82%
 Improving butanol tolerance
  C. acetobutylicum Overexpressing HSP genes grpE and htpG Improved butanol tolerance with increases of 25% (grpE) and 56% (htpG) [167]
  C. acetobutylicum Overexpressing gshAB genes from E. coli Increased cell resistance against butanol stress (from 14.5 to 18 g/L), and aero-stress [83]
  1. aNTG N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine