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Table 2 Reactor and impeller designs proposed for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings in the range of 20–40%

From: Constraints and advances in high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: a critical review

Design of reactor/impellerSolids loading (w/w) (%)SubstratePretreatment typeHydrolysis yield (%)References
Shaking flasks20Wheat strawAlkaline30[117]
Segmented helical impeller20Wheat strawAlkaline76[117]
Horizontal reactor20Big bluestemHydrothermal followed by ultrasonic treatment72[169]
Horizontal reactor20Corncob residueDilute acid followed by alkaline treatment63.8[104]
Peg mixer20Unbleached hardwood kraft pulp84[168]
Periodic peristalsis21Corn stoverSteam explosion71.2[156]
Double helical impeller25Corn stoverAcid steam explosion~ 60[166]
Horizontal reactor25Corn stoverAcid steam explosion~ 65[166]
Horizontal reactor25Wheat strawSteam explosion~ 55[23]
Segmented Helical impeller30BeechwoodOrganosolv72[117]
Peg mixer30Agave bagasseOrganosolv90[163]
Horizontal reactor40Wheat strawSteam explosion~ 35[23]
Paddle dryer40Wheat strawSteam explosion52[120]