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Table 5 Ethanol–water separation performance of MMMs

From: Membranes for bioethanol production by pervaporation

Polymer membrane material/support Filler (loading) Feed concentration (wt. %) Feed temperature (°C) Separation factor Flux (g·m−2·h−1) Reference
PDMS/silicalite-1
 PDMS/PEI Silicalite-1 (77 wt. %) 7 22 59 71 [19]
 PDMS Silicalite (60 wt. %) 5 50 21  ~ 105 [76]
 PDMS Silicalite-1 (40 wt. %) 5 50 17.9  ~ 60 [73]
 PDMS/alumina Silicalite-1 (30 wt. %) 4 25 16.5  ~ 125 [75]
 PDMS Silicalite-1 (30 wt. %) 6 40 14.9 51 [84]
 PDMS/PTFE Silicalite-1 (30 wt. %) 5 50 13 39 [132]
 PDMS/PES Silicalite-1 (2 wt. %) 5 40 10.9 635 [126]
 PDMS Silicalite-1 (30 wt. %) 6 35  ~ 10  ~ 70a [86]
 PDMS/PSF Silicalite-1 (50 wt. %) 4.8 60 7.5 231 [262]
 PDMS (commercial MMM) Silicalite-1 (50 wt. %) 6 35  ~ 7.2  ~ 55 [86]
 PDMS/PI Silicalite-1 (15 wt. %) 3 41 4.8 170 [74]
PDMS/modified silicalite-1
 PDMS VTES-modified silicalite-1 (67 wt. %) 5 50 34.3 176 [80]
 PDMS Acid- and steam-treated silicalite-1 (50 wt. %) 4.4 50 29.3 120 [155]
 F-PBZ modified PDMS/PTFE VTMS-modified silicalite-1 (30 wt. %) 5 50 28.7 207 [132]
 PDMS/PVDF VTES-modified silicalite-1 (67 wt. %) 5 50 26.3 1940 [77]
 PDMS/PVDF Dodecyltrichlorosilane-modified silicalite-1 (50 wt. %) 5 40 19.9 66.3 [81]
 PDMS Silylated nano-sized silicalite-1 (40 wt. %) 6 35 16.4  ~ 86 [125]
 PDMS/PSF TMDS-modified silicalite-1 (50 wt. %) 5 60 14.7 400 [78]
PDMS/ZSM-5
 PDMS ZSM-5 (60 wt. %) 5 50  ~ 37  ~ 380 [82]
 PDMS/PVDF ZSM-5 (30 wt. %) 5 50 13.7 821 [263]
 PDMS/PVDF/polyester nonwoven fabric ZSM-5 (20 wt. %) 5 40 10.4  ~ 210 [257]
 PDMS ZSM-5 (30 wt. %) 6 35  ~ 6.3  ~ 55a [86]
 PDMS ZSM-5 (CBV 28,014) (60 wt. %) 5 50 39 66 [248]
 PDMS ZSM-5 (CBV-28014) (50 wt. %) 5 50 37 195 [244]
 PDMS with a pure PDMS top coat/PVDF ZSM-5 (CBV-28014) (65 wt. %) 5 50 18  ~ 520 [44]
 PDMS/PI ZSM-5 (CBV-3002) (30 wt. %) 3 41 5.5 151 [74]
PDMS/modified ZSM-5
 PDMS/PVDF HF etched ZSM-5(30 wt. %) 5 50 16.7 134 [83]
 PDMS/PVDF/polyester nonwoven fabric Dodecyltrichlorosilane-modified ZSM-5 (30 wt. %) 5 40 15.8 203 [257]
 PDMS/CA APTS-modified ZSM-5 (20 wt. %) 10 40 14.1 348 [79]
 PDMS/ceramic ZSM-5 first grafted with OTES and then coated with a thin PDMS layer (40 wt. %) 5 40 14 408 [260]
PDMS/other zeolites
 PDMS Ultrastable zeolite type Y (50 wt. %) –- 30 16.1 610 L·m−2·h−1 [92]
 PDMS Hollow spheres with silicalite-1 shell (30 wt. %) 6 40 15.3 72 [84]
 PDMS Zeolite (TZP-9023) (30 wt. %) 10 25 12.5 332 [261]
 PDMS(commercial MMM) Zeolite (–-) 1.5 66 11.1 120 [85]
 PDMS ALPO-5 type zeolite (50 wt. %) –- 30 5.2 200 L·m−2·h−1 [92]
 PDMS Zeolite Y (30 wt. %) 6 35  ~ 4.5  ~ 90a [86]
PDMS/MOFs
 PDMS/PVDF ZIF-91 (20 wt. %) 5 55 15.8 846 [266]
 PDMS/PI ZIF-67 (20 wt. %) 6 40 15.4 2780 [251]
 PDMS/PVDF RHO-[Zn(eim)2] (MAF-6) (15 wt. %) 5 40 14.9 1200 [250]
 PDMS/PVDF ZIF-L (30 wt. %) 5 40 14.3  ~ 570 [95]
 PDMS ZIF-71 (40 wt. %) 2 60 12.5 55,470 barrer [87]
 PDMS/PVDF Submicrometer-sized ZIF-71 (40 wt. %) 5 50 10.1  ~ 1070 [255]
 PDMS/PVDF ZIF-71 (20 wt. %) 5 50 9.9  ~ 900 [259]
 PDMS ZIF-71-coated mesoporous silica core–shell sphere (20 wt. %) 6 40 13 1000 [96]
 PDMS/PSF MIL-53 (40 wt. %) 5 70 11.1 5467 [21]
 PDMS ZIF-8-coated mesoporous silica core–shell sphere (20 wt. %) 6 40 15 720 [96]
 PDMS ZIF-8 (5 wt. %) 5 60 9.9 1229 [93]
PDMS/modified MOFs
 PDMS/PVDF Dodecylamine-modified ZIF-90 (2.5 wt. %) 5 60 15.1 99.5 [252]
 PDMS/PSF TMDS-modified MCM-41@ZIF-8 (5 wt. %) 5 60 9.5 1846 [267]
PDMS/other fillers
 PDMS/nonwoven fabric Nanosilica (5 wt. %) 5 60 30.1 114 [264]
 PDMS/PSF Fumed silica (5 wt. %) 5 60 12.5 807 [93]
 PDMS/PVDF Fumed silica (20 wt. %) 4.8 60  ~ 6.4  ~ 1000 [268]
 PDMS (commercial MMM) Silica (30 wt. %) 8 25  ~ 9 85 [130]
 PDMS POSS (5 wt. %) 10 50 17.7 536 [269]
 PDMS/PVDF Octa[(trimethoxysilyl)ethyl]-POSS (7.5 wt. %) 10 40 16.4 253 [246]
 PDMS PSS-2 (20 wt. %) 6 40 13 710 [270]
 PDMS/PA PZSNT (10 wt. %) 10 40 10 476 [265]
 PDMS/PA Carbon black (3 wt. %) 13.7 30 9  ~ 178 [99]
 PDMS CNT (10 wt. %) 8 60 8.2 129 [98]
 PDMS [CuII2(bza)4(pyz)]n (3 wt. %) 5 25 6.2 47 [89]
 PDMS/PVDF PAF-11 (2 wt. %) 10 28 3.85 1480 [254]
Other polymers/fillers
 PTMSP/PVDF Hexamethyldisilazane-treated silica (CabO-Sil TS 530) (25 wt. %) 5 50 18.3 9500 [55]
 PTMSP Hexamethyldisilazane-treated silica (CabO-Sil TS 530) (50 wt. %) 10 50 15.3 400 [151]
 PTMSP PAF-1 (10 wt. %) 10 40 12.7 247 [153]
 PTMSP p-DCX (10 wt. %) 10 40 13.7 341 [153]
 PTMSP/PVDF Silica (50 wt. %) 10 50 12 3500 [151]
 PEBA 2533 POSS (2 wt. %) 5 65 5.7 427 [103]
 PEBA/PAN Silicalite (2 wt. %) 5 40 3.6 833 [247]
 Poly(styrene-co-butylacrylate) copolymer Nano clay (Cloisite 15A) (2 wt. %) 5 30 26.4 340 [258]
 PMPS ZIF-8 (9.1 wt. %) 1 80  ~ 12  ~ 6600 barrer [97]
 PIM Reduced octylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (0.1 wt. %) 5 65 5.1 885 [20]
 PVDF/PVDF (dual-layer hollow fiber) Nanosilica (20 wt. %) 5 50 29 1100 [91]
 PA6 CNT (0.5 wt. %) 20 22 4.7 –- [175]
  1. aThe fluxes are normalized to a membrane thickness of 100 μm.
  2. 1 barrer = 1 × 10−10 cm3 (STP) cm cm−2·s−1·cmHg−1.
  3. PEI polyetherimide, PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene, PES polyethersulfone, PSF polysulfone, PI polyimide, VTES vinyltriethoxysilane, F-PBZ fluorinated polybenzoxazine, VTMS vinyltrimethoxysilane, PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride, TMDS 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisilazane, CA cellulose acetate, APTS 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, OTES noctyltriethoxysilane, PA polyamide, POSS polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, PSS-2 poly-oligosiloxysilicone, PZSNT polyphosphazene nanotube, CNT carbon nanotube, PAF porous aromatic framework, p-DCX polydichloroxylene, PAN polyacrylonitrile, PEBA poly(ether block amide), PMPS polymethylphenylsiloxane, PIM polymers of intrinsic microporosity