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Table 1 Limonene titers in different hosts

From: Engineering Rhodosporidium toruloides for limonene production

Host Limonene synthase Stereo isomer Pathway Direct precursor of LS Carbon source Cultivation mode Titer (mg/L) Productivity (mg/L/h)a Yield (mg/g) Reference
Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) Mentha spicata S MEP&MVA GPP Glycerol Bioreactor
Fed-batch
3630 151  < 10b Rolf et al. [9]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
EGY48
Citrus limon R MVA GPP Glucose Bioreactor Fed batch 2580 3.36b NA Dusséaux et al. [11]
Yarrowia lipolytica Po1f Agastache rugosa R MVA NPP Glycerol &Citrate Bioreactor; Fed-batch 165.3 1.15a 41.3b Cheng et al. [8]
Synechococcus elongatus
UTEX 2973 (mutated)
Mentha spicata S MEP GPP CO2; 250 μmol photons/m2/s 16.4 0.34 NA Lin et al. [14]
Rhodosporidium toruloides IFO0880 Abies grandis S MVA GPP Glucose Shake flask batch Trace NA NA Zhuang et al. [20]
Rhodosporidium toruloides np11 Citrus limon R MVA NPP Glucose 5-mL test-tube; batch 393.5 0.66 19.675 This work
  1. NA not available
  2. aCalculated by the data presented in the references
  3. bCalculated by the data estimated from the figure or graph