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Table 2 Effect of CRISPR interference of the mutated genes on production of astaxanthin in E. coli AST-4

From: Adaptive laboratory evolution and shuffling of Escherichia coli to enhance its tolerance and production of astaxanthin

Gene Protein Amino acid mutation Ratio of astaxanthin concentrationb
Response to stress
 yadC (b0135) Fimbrial tip-adhesin YadC Gly39Asp 1.40 ± 0.01
 lon (b0439) Lon protease Lys554fsa 1.22 ± 0.01
 cusB (b0574) Copper/silver export system membrane fusion protein Pro103Ser 1.11 ± 0.05
 acnA (b1276) Aconitate hydratase 1 Ser522Gly 1.09 ± 0.01
 rcsC (b2218) Sensory histidine kinase RcsC Phe136Leu 1.45 ± 0.07
Membrane and transport protein
 pqiA (b0950) Intermembrane transport protein PqiA Met163Ile 1.17 ± 0.08
 fixA (b0041) Putative electron transfer flavoprotein FixA Ile137Thr 1.09 ± 0.05
Cellular lipid metabolic process
 fabI (b1288) Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase Tyr146His 1.06 ± 0.02
Genetic information processing
 infA (b0884) Translation initiation factor IF-1 Lost of the start codon Met 1.19 ± 0.04
 fabR (b3741) Transcriptional repressor of fabA and fabB Gly61Val 1.05 ± 0.08
 ygfI (b2921) DNA-binding transcriptional regulator YgfI Ile85Thr 1.63 ± 0.01
 mnmG (b3741) Carboxymethylaminomethyluridine-tRNA synthase subunit MnmG Gly311Asp 1.52 ± 0.03
 rppH (b2830) RNA pyrophosphohydrolase Ser32Pro 1.21 ± 0.06
 rpoC (b3988) RNA polymerase subunit beta' Ala1323Thr 1.17 ± 0.01
 sseA (b2521) 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase Gly122fs 1.14 ± 0.03
 glpR (b3423) Glycerol-3-phosphate regulon repressor Ala51fs 1.12 ± 0.01
Signaling and cellular processes  
 sfmF (b0534) Uncharacterized fimbrial-like protein SfmF Glu127fs 1.21 ± 0.03
 phoH (b1020) ATP-binding protein PhoH Cys314Arg 1.12 ± 0.12
Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism
 hybO (b2997) Hydrogenase 2 small subunit Pro291Ser 1.34 ± 0.01
Carbohydrate metabolism
 frlB (b3371) Fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase Ser140Gly 1.31 ± 0.01
 ydiF (b1694) Putative acetate-CoA transferase Val22Met 1.30 ± 0.07
 ttdA (b3061) l (+)-tartrate dehydratase subunit alpha Ile243Val 1.29 ± 0.01
Nucleotide metabolism
 cpdA (b3032) cAMP phosphodiesterase Tyr275Cys 1.11 ± 0.02
NO KO assigned
 yadE (b0130) Uncharacterized protein, hydrolase activity Asp380fs 1.22 ± 0.01
 icdC (b4519) Protein IcdC Ser44fs, Glu45fs 1.18 ± 0.05
 ymcF (b4723) Protein YmcF Thr19Ala 1.10 ± 0.09
 intQ (b1579) Qin prophage; putative defective integrase Phe274Leu 1.09 ± 0.01
 yfcV (b2339) Putative fimbrial protein YfcV Leu164Pro 1.46 ± 0.05
 pdeN (b2176) Phosphodiesterase PdeN Val50Ala, Val141Met, Ala414Val 1.41 ± 0.01
  1. aFrameshift variant
  2. bThe ratio of astaxanthin production with CRISPRi and without