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Table 1 Physiological function of genes shown in Figure 1 as being required for tolerance to inhibitory concentrations of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid or ethanol, acetic acid and vanillin or furfural.

From: Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

Gene Functiona
Stress: Ethanol, acetic acid and glucose
Anp1 Subunit of the α-1, 6 mannosyltransferase complex involved in the mannysolation of cell wall proteins
Bud31 Protein involved in mRNA splicing
Hpr1 Subunit of THO/TREX complexes that couple transcription elongation with mitotic recombination and with mRNA metabolism and export
Pho85 Cyclin-dependent kinase involved in the regulation of yeast response to nutrient depletion, environmental stress and cell cycle progression.
Ppa1 Proteolipid subunit of the membrane domain of the vacuolar H*-ATPase (V-ATPase)
Rpl1B Component of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit
Vrp1 Actin-associated protein involved in cytoskeletal organization and cytokinesis
Ygl024w Unknown Function
Stress: Ethanol, acetic acid and vanillin
End3 Protein involved in endocytosis, actin cytoskeletal organization and cell wall morphogenesis
Erg2 Sterol isomerase involved in ergosterol biosynthesis
Erg24 Sterol reductase involved in ergosterol biosynthesis
Gcs1 ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein, involved in transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi
Rav1 Subunit of the RAVE complex which promotes assembly of the V-ATPase
Tps1 Synthase subunit of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex required for trehalose biosynthesis
Stress: Ethanol, acetic acid and furfural
Nat3 Catalytic subunit of the NATB N-terminal acetyltransferase involved in protein acetylation
Ppa1 Proteolipid subunit of the membrane domain of the vacuolar H*-ATPase (V*ATPase)
Rpb4 RNA polymerase II subunit
Prs3 Pyrophosphate synthetase required for nucleotide, histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis
Vma8 Peripheral membrane domain subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase)
  1. aThe description of gene function is based on the information available in the Saccharomyces Genome Database www.yeastgenome.org. NATB: RAVE: regulator of the ATPase of vacuolar and endosomal membranes.