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Table 2 Market and current production processes of selected chemicals

From: Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

Product Annual Production (t) Production process Ref.
1,3-Propanediol 130,000 Petrochemical [9]
2,3-Butanediol 1,250,000 Petrochemical [92]
Ethanol 61,000,000 Microbial fermentation [93]
n-Butanol 2,800,000 Petrochemical [9]
Lactic acid 350,000 Microbial fermentation [94]
Succinic acid 16 -30,000 Petrochemical [95]
Citric acid 1,600,000* Microbial fermentation [54]
Oxalic acid 124,000* Petrochemical [54]
Mannitol 13,600 - 50,000 Chemical conversion of sugars [77, 78]
Erythritol 20,000 – 23,000 Microbial fermentation [79, 96]
  1. *Estimated values.