Bioassay on insecticidal activity of Cry1Ab/1Ac in transgenic J. curcas plants against A. micaceanus. (A, B) Leaf explants from MD44 and transgenic Cry1Ab/1Ac plant L10-T1-10 artificially infested with the second to third instar larvae of A. micaceanus in beakers. Photos were taken at 0 day (A) and 4 days (B) after infestation, respectively. (C) Feeding damage on leaves of MD44 and L10-T1-10 by A. micaceanus larvae. Photos were taken at 4 days after infestation. (D) Live larva and pupa of A. micaceanus after feeding on leaves of MD44 at 4 days after infestation. L, Larva; P, pupa. (E) Death of larvae of A. micaceanus after feeding on leaves of L10-T1-10 at 4 days after infestation. Arrows indicate two dead larvae.