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Table 4 Applications of γ-PGA and its derivatives

From: Microbial synthesis of poly-γ-glutamic acid: current progress, challenges, and future perspectives

Field Applications Details Ref.
Food industry Food supplement Promotion of absorption of bioavailable minerals, such as Ca2+ [68]
Texture enhancer Enhancing the rheological and thermal properties, and reducing the hardness of wheat bread [98]
Oil-reducing agent Reducing oil uptake during deep-fat frying [99]
Cryoprotectant The γ-PGA with 20 kDa could have higher antifreeze activities than high antifreeze agents like glucose [11]
Thickener Enhancing viscosity for fruit juice beverage, sports drinks [1]
Animal feed additives Increasing egg-shells strength; decreasing body fat, etc [1]
Medicine Metal chelator Removal of heavy metals and radionuclides [100]
Drug carrier/deliverer Improvement of anticancer; nanoparticle medicine [101]
Gene vectors Use for gene therapy [102]
Tissue engineering Possessing the better mechanical properties, such as easily removed, the more hydrophilic and cytocompatible [103]
Biological adhesive Substitutes of fibrin with the better lung adhesion and air-leak sealing [104]
Bioremediation Biopolymer flocculant Substitution for petro-chemically synthesized flocculants, such as polyacrylamide [70]
Metal chelates Removal of heavy metals and radionuclides [105]
Dye removal Effectively and circularly removing basic dyes from aqueous solution [71]
Others Moisturizer Improving the qualities of skincare and hair care products [72]
Biocontrol agent Increasing the nutrient consumption as well as growth of seedlings [106]
Biodegradable plastic Use in biodegradable plastics with good thermoplastic property [7]
Antibacterial activity Its derivatives have antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus [107]
Functional membranes Separation of metal ions; enantioselection of amino acids [77]
Protective effect γ-PGA has a unique protective effect on phage particles [108]