Menon V, Rao M. Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: biofuels, platform chemicals & biorefinery concept. Prog Energy Combust. 2012;38:522–50.
Viikari L, Vehmaanpera J, Koivula A. Lignocellulosic ethanol: from science to industry. Biomass Bioenergy. 2012;46:13–24.
Balan V, Chiaramonti D, Kumar S. Review of US and EU initiatives toward development, demonstration, and commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin. 2013;7:732–59.
Burton RA, Gidley MJ, Fincher GB. Heterogeneity in the chemistry, structure and function of plant cell walls. Nat Chem Biol. 2010;6:724–32.
Zhao XB, Zhang LH, Liu DH. Biomass recalcitrance. Part I: the chemical compositions and physical structures affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin. 2012;6:465–82.
Grethlein HE. The effect of pore-size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Nat Biotechnol. 1985;3:155–60.
Arantes V, Saddler JN. Access to cellulose limits the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis: the role of amorphogenesis. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2010;3:4.
Luterbacher JS, Walker LP, Moran-Mirabal JM. Observing and modeling BMCC degradation by commercial cellulase cocktails with fluorescently labeled Trichoderma reseii Cel7A through confocal microscopy. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:108–17.
Meng X, Ragauskas AJ. Recent advances in understanding the role of cellulose accessibility in enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. Curr Opin Biotech. 2014;27:150–8.
Wang ZJ, Zhu JY, Fu YJ, Qin MH, Shao ZY, Jiang JG, Yang F. Lignosulfonate-mediated cellulase adsorption: enhanced enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose through weakening nonproductive binding to lignin. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2013;6:1.
Gao DH, Haarmeyer C, Balan V, Whitehead TA, Dale BE, Chundawat SPS. Lignin triggers irreversible cellulase loss during pretreated lignocellulosic biomass saccharification. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2014;7:1.
Yu GC, Yano S, Inoue H, Inoue S, Wang JL, Endo T. Structural insights into rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water in relation to enzymatic hydrolysis. Appl Biochem Biotech. 2014;174:2278–94.
Qing Q, Yang B, Wyman CE. Xylooligomers are strong inhibitors of cellulose hydrolysis by enzymes. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:9624–30.
Ximenes E, Kim Y, Mosier N, Dien B, Ladisch M. Deactivation of cellulases by phenols. Enzyme Microb Tech. 2011;48:54–60.
Zhao XB, Zhang LH, Liu DH. Biomass recalcitrance. Part II: fundamentals of different pre-treatments to increase the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulose. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin. 2012;6:561–79.
Chundawat SPS, Donohoe BS, Sousa LD, Elder T, Agarwal UP, Lu FC, Ralph J, Himmel ME, Balan V, Dale BE. Multi-scale visualization and characterization of lignocellulosic plant cell wall deconstruction during thermochemical pretreatment. Energ Environ Sci. 2011;4:973–84.
Ding SY, Liu YS, Zeng YN, Himmel ME, Baker JO, Bayer EA. How does plant cell wall nanoscale architecture correlate with enzymatic digestibility? Science. 2012;338:1055–60.
Inouye H, Zhang Y, Yang L, Venugopalan N, Fischetti RF, Gleber SC, Vogt S, Fowle W, Makowski B, Tucker M, et al. Multiscale deconstruction of molecular architecture in corn stover. Sci Rep. 2014;4:1.
Belmokhtar N, Habrant A, Ferreira NL, Chabbert B. Changes in phenolics distribution after chemical pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of Miscanthus x giganteus internode. Bioenergy Res. 2013;6:506–18.
Ma J, Zhang X, Zhou X, Xu F. Revealing the changes in topochemical characteristics of poplar cell wall during hydrothermal pretreatment. Bioenergy Res. 2014;7:1358–68.
Adani F, Papa G, Schievano A, Cardinale G, D’Imporzano G, Tambone F. Nanoscale structure of the cell wall protecting cellulose from enzyme attack. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:1107–13.
Pu YQ, Hu F, Huang F, Davison BH, Ragauskas AJ. Assessing the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance during dilute acid and hydrothermal pretreatments. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2013;6:1.
Donaldson L. Softwood and hardwood lignin fluorescence spectra of wood cell walls in different mounting media. IAWA J. 2013;34:3–19.
DeMartini JD, Pattathil S, Avci U, Szekalski K, Mazumder K, Hahn MG, Wyman CE. Application of monoclonal antibodies to investigate plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuels production. Energy Environ Sci. 2011;4:4332–9.
Blumentritt M, Gardner DJ, Cole BJW, Shaler SM. Influence of hot-water extraction on ultrastructure and distribution of glucomannans and xylans in poplar xylem as detected by gold immunolabeling. Holzforschung. 2016;70:243–52.
Donohoe BS, Selig MJ, Viamajala S, Vinzant TB, Adney WS, Himmel ME. Detecting cellulase penetration into corn stover cell walls by immuno-electron microscopy. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;103:480–9.
Luterbacher JS, Moran-Mirabal JM, Burkholder EW, Walker LP. Modeling enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates using confocal fluorescence microscopy I: filter paper cellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2015;112:21–31.
Chesson A, Gardner PT, Wood TJ. Cell wall porosity and available surface area of wheat straw and wheat grain fractions. J Sci Food Agric. 1997;75:289–95.
Yang D, Moran-Mirabal JM, Parlange JY, Walker LP. Investigation of the porous structure of cellulosic substrates through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:2836–45.
Vaidya AA, Newman RH, Campion SH, Suckling ID. Strength of adsorption of polyethylene glycol on pretreated Pinus radiata wood and consequences for enzymatic saccharification. Biomass Bioenerg. 2014;70:339–46.
Sipponen MH, Pihlajaniemi V, Littunen K, Pastinen O, Laakso S. Determination of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyls and surface area of lignin by cationic dye adsorption. Bioresour Technol. 2014;169:80–7.
Cuyvers S, Hendrix J, Dornez E, Engelborghs Y, Delcour JA, Courtin CM. Both substrate hydrolysis and secondary substrate binding determine xylanase mobility as assessed by FRAP. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:4810–7.
Dornez E, Cuyvers S, Holopainen U, Nordlund E, Poutanen K, Delcour JA, Courtin CM. Inactive fluorescently labeled xylanase as a novel probe for microscopic analysis of arabinoxylan containing cereal cell walls. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:6369–75.
Moran-Mirabal JM. The study of cell wall structure and cellulose-cellulase interactions through fluorescence microscopy. Cellulose. 2013;20:2291–309.
Paës G, Chabbert B. Characterization of arabinoxylan/cellulose nanocrystals gels to investigate fluorescent probes mobility in bioinspired models of plant secondary cell wall. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:206–14.
Paës G, Burr S, Saab MB, Molinari M, Aguié-Béghin V, Chabbert B. Modeling progression of fluorescent probes in bioinspired lignocellulosic assemblies. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:2196–205.
Lopez-Sanchez P, Schuster E, Wang D, Gidley MJ, Strom A. Diffusion of macromolecules in self-assembled cellulose/hemicellulose hydrogels. Soft Matter. 2015;11:4002–10.
Fong M, Berrin JG, Paës G. Investigation of the binding properties of a multi-modular GH45 cellulase using bioinspired model assemblies. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2016;9:1.
Paës G. Fluorescent probes for exploring plant cell wall deconstruction: a review. Molecules. 2014;19:9380–402.
Donaldson LA, Kroese HW, Hill SJ, Franich RA. Detection of wood cell wall porosity using small carbohydrate molecules and confocal fluorescence microscopy. J Microsc. 2015;259:228–36.
Schwanninger M, Rodrigues JC, Pereira H, Hinterstoisser B. Effects of short-time vibratory ball milling on the shape of FT-IR spectra of wood and cellulose. Vibr Spectrosc. 2004;36:23–40.
Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M. Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol. 2005;96:673–86.
Assor C, Placet V, Chabbert B, Habrant A, Lapierre C, Pollet B, Perré P. Concomitant changes in viscoelastic properties and amorphous polymers during the hydrothermal treatment of hardwood and softwood. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6830–7.
Behera S, Arora R, Nandhagopal N, Kumar S. Importance of chemical pretreatment for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2014;36:91–106.
Trajano HL, Pattathil S, Tomkins BA, Tschaplinski TJ, Hahn MG, Van Berkel GJ, Wyman CE. Xylan hydrolysis in Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides and model substrates during hydrothermal pretreatment. Bioresour Technol. 2015;179:202–10.
Kumar R, Hu F, Hubbell CA, Ragauskas AJ, Wyman CE. Comparison of laboratory delignification methods, their selectivity, and impacts on physiochemical characteristics of cellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol. 2013;130:372–81.
Ralph J, Brunow G, Boerjan W. Lignins. Encyclopedia of life sciences. Hoboken: Wiley; 2007.
Mottiar Y, Vanholme R, Boerjan W, Ralph J, Mansfield SD. Designer lignins: harnessing the plasticity of lignification. Curr Opin Biotech. 2016;37:190–200.
Trajano HL, Engle NL, Foston M, Ragauskas AJ, Tschaplinski TJ, Wyman CE. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2013;6:1.
Donaldson L, Hague J, Snell R. Lignin distribution in coppice poplar, linseed and wheat straw. Holzforschung. 2001;55:379–85.
McCartney L, Marcus SE, Knox JP. Monoclonal antibodies to plant cell wall xylans and arabinoxylans. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005;53:543–6.
Kim JS, Sandquist D, Sundberg B, Daniel G. Spatial and temporal variability of xylan distribution in differentiating secondary xylem of hybrid aspen. Planta. 2012;235:1315–30.
Xue J, Bosch M, Knox JP. Heterogeneity and glycan masking of cell wall microstructures in the stems of Miscanthus × giganteus, and its parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82114.
Kozak M. Solution scattering studies of conformation stability of xylanase XYNII from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Biopolymers. 2006;83:95–102.
Luterbacher JS, Parlange JY, Walker LP. A pore-hindered diffusion and reaction model can help explain the importance of pore size distribution in enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:127–36.
Meng XZ, Wells T, Sun QN, Huang F, Ragauskas A. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water or alkaline pretreatment on the cellulose accessible surface area and the overall porosity of Populus. Green Chem. 2015;17:4239–46.
Ishizawa CI, Jeoh T, Adney WS, Himmel ME, Johnson DK, Davis MF. Can delignification decrease cellulose digestibility in acid pretreated corn stover? Cellulose. 2009;16:677–86.
Moran-Mirabal JM, Bolewski JC, Walker LP. Thermobifida fusca cellulases exhibit limited surface diffusion on bacterial micro-crystalline cellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:47–56.
Wise LE, Murphy M, D’Addieco AA. Chlorite holocellulose, its fractionation and bearing on summative wood analysis and on studies on the hemicelluloses. Paper Trade J. 1946;122:11–9.
Rémond C, Aubry N, Cronier D, Noel S, Martel F, Roge B, Rakotoarivonina H, Debeire P, Chabbert B. Combination of ammonia and xylanase pretreatments: impact on enzymatic xylan and cellulose recovery from wheat straw. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:6712–7.
Chantreau M, Portelette A, Dauwe R, Kiyoto S, Crônier D, Morreel K, Arribat S, Neutelings G, Chabi M, Boerjan W, et al. Ectopic lignification in the flax lignified bast fiber1 mutant stem is associated with tissue-specific modifications in gene expression and cell wall composition. Plant Cell. 2014;26:4462–82.