Ragauskas AJ, Williams CK, Davison BH, Britovsek G, Cairney J, Eckert CA, Frederick WJ, Hallett JP, Leak DJ, Liotta CL. The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials. Science. 2006;311(5760):484–9.
Ragauskas AJ, Beckham GT, Biddy MJ, Chandra R, Chen F, Davis MF, Davison BH, Dixon RA, Gilna P, Keller M. Lignin valorization: improving lignin processing in the biorefinery. Science. 2014;344(6185):1246843.
McCann MC, Carpita NC. Biomass recalcitrance: a multi-scale, multi-factor and conversion-specific property. J Exp Bot. 2015;66(14):4109–18.
Himmel ME, Ding S-Y, Johnson DK, Adney WS, Nimlos MR, Brady JW, Foust TD. Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science. 2007;315(5813):804–7.
Li M, Pu Y, Ragauskas AJ. Current understanding of the correlation of lignin structure with biomass recalcitrance. Front Chem. 2016;4:1–8.
Yan L, Ma R, Li L, Fu J. Hot water pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: an effective and environmentally friendly approach to enhance biofuel production. Chem Eng Technol. 2016;39(10):1759–70.
Zhuang X, Wang W, Yu Q, Qi W, Wang Q, Tan X, Zhou G, Yuan Z. Liquid hot water pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production accompanying with high valuable products. Bioresour Technol. 2016;199:68–75.
Kim Y, Hendrickson R, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR. Liquid hot water pretreatment of cellulosic biomass. Biofuels Methods Protoc. 2009;581:93–102.
Mosier NS. Fundamentals of aqueous pretreatment of biomass. Aqueous pretreatment of plant biomass for biological and chemical conversion to fuels and chemicals. Wiley: New Jersey; 2013. pp. 129–143.
Nitsos CK, Choli-Papadopoulou T, Matis KA, Triantafyllidis KS. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of hardwood and softwood lignocellulosic residues for selective hemicellulose recovery and improved cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2016;4(9):4529–44.
Grénman H, Eränen K, Krogell J, Willför S, Salmi T, Murzin DY. Kinetics of aqueous extraction of hemicelluloses from spruce in an intensified reactor system. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2011;50(7):3818–28.
Mok WSL, Antal MJ Jr. Uncatalyzed solvolysis of whole biomass hemicellulose by hot compressed liquid water. Ind Eng Chem Res. 1992;31(4):1157–61.
Kumar R, Mago G, Balan V, Wyman CE. Physical and chemical characterizations of corn stover and poplar solids resulting from leading pretreatment technologies. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100(17):3948–62.
Liu C, Wyman CE. Impact of fluid velocity on hot water only pretreatment of corn stover in a flow through reactor. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held May 4–7, 2003, in Breckenridge, CO: 2004. Springer: 977–987.
Donohoe BS, Decker SR, Tucker MP, Himmel ME, Vinzant TB. Visualizing lignin coalescence and migration through maize cell walls following thermochemical pretreatment. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;101(5):913–25.
Ko JK, Kim Y, Ximenes E, Ladisch MR. Effect of liquid hot water pretreatment severity on properties of hardwood lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2015;112(2):252–62.
Pu Y, Hu F, Huang F, Davison BH, Ragauskas AJ. Assessing the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance during dilute acid and hydrothermal pretreatments. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2013;6(1):1.
Meng X, Pu Y, Yoo CG, Li M, Bali G, Park D-Y, Gjersing E, Davis M, Wellington M, Tuskan G. An in-depth understanding of biomass recalcitrance using natural poplar variants as the feedstock. ChemSusChem. 2016;10(1):139–150.
Cao S, Pu Y, Studer M, Wyman C, Ragauskas AJ. Chemical transformations of Populus trichocarpa during dilute acid pretreatment. Rsc Advances. 2012;2(29):10925–36.
Foston MB, Hubbell CA, Ragauskas AJ. Cellulose isolation methodology for NMR analysis of cellulose ultrastructure. Materials. 2011;4(11):1985–2002.
Bali G, Khunsupat R, Akinosho H, Payyavula RS, Samuel R, Tuskan GA, Kalluri UC, Ragauskas AJ. Characterization of cellulose structure of Populus plants modified in candidate cellulose biosynthesis genes. Biomass Bioenergy. 2016;94:146–54.
Sun R, Fang J, Tomkinson J, Geng Z, Liu J. Fractional isolation, physico-chemical characterization and homogeneous esterification of hemicelluloses from fast-growing poplar wood. Carbohydr Polym. 2001;44(1):29–39.
Yuan T-Q, Xu F, He J, Sun R-C. Structural and physico-chemical characterization of hemicelluloses from ultrasound-assisted extractions of partially delignified fast-growing poplar wood through organic solvent and alkaline solutions. Biotechnol Adv. 2010;28(5):583–93.
Capanema EA, Balakshin MY, Kadla JF. Quantitative characterization of a hardwood milled wood lignin by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(25):9639–49.
Yuan T-Q, Sun S-N, Xu F, Sun R-C. Structural characterization of lignin from triploid of Populus tomentosa Carr. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59(12):6605–15.
Samuel R, Pu Y, Jiang N, Fu C, Wang Z-Y, Ragauskas A. Structural characterization of lignin in wild-type versus COMT down-regulated switchgrass. Front Energy Res. 2014;1:1–9.
Meng X, Wells T, Sun Q, Huang F, Ragauskas A. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water or alkaline pretreatment on the cellulose accessible surface area and the overall porosity of Populus. Green Chem. 2015;17(8):4239–46.
Adani F, Papa G, Schievano A, Cardinale G, D’Imporzano G, Tambone F. Nanoscale structure of the cell wall protecting cellulose from enzyme attack. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;45(3):1107–13.
Shen J, Wyman CE. A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102(19):9111–20.
Kim Y, Kreke T, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR. Severity factor coefficients for subcritical liquid hot water pretreatment of hardwood chips. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2014;111(2):254–63.
Steinbach D, Kruse A, Sauer J. Pretreatment technologies of lignocellulosic biomass in water in view of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production-a review. Biomass Convers Biorefinery. 2017;7(2):1–28.
Zhao X, Zhang L, Liu D. Biomass recalcitrance. Part I: the chemical compositions and physical structures affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Biofuel Bioprod Bior. 2012;6(4):465–82.
Li M, Pu Y, Yoo CG, Gjersing E, Decker SR, Doeppke C, Shollenberger T, Tschaplinski TJ, Engle NL, Sykes RW. Study of traits and recalcitrance reduction of field-grown COMT down-regulated switchgrass. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2017;10(1):12.
Singh S, Khanna S, Moholkar VS, Goyal A. Screening and optimization of pretreatments for Parthenium hysterophorus as feedstock for alcoholic biofuels. Appl Energy. 2014;129:195–206.
Hall M, Bansal P, Lee JH, Realff MJ, Bommarius AS. Cellulose crystallinity–a key predictor of the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. FEBS J. 2010;277(6):1571–82.
Nimlos MR, Beckham GT, Matthews JF, Bu L, Himmel ME, Crowley MF. Binding preferences, surface attachment, diffusivity, and orientation of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module on cellulose. J Biol Chem. 2012;287(24):20603–12.
Liu Y-S, Baker JO, Zeng Y, Himmel ME, Haas T, Ding S-Y. Cellobiohydrolase hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose on hydrophobic faces. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(13):11195–201.
Mosier NS, Hall P, Ladisch CM, Ladisch MR. Reaction kinetics, molecular action, and mechanisms of cellulolytic proteins. In: Recent Progress in Bioconversion of Lignocellulosics. Springer; 1999: 23-40.
Leschinsky M, Zuckerstätter G, Weber HK, Patt R, Sixta H. Effect of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood on lignin structure. Part 2: influence of autohydrolysis intensity. Holzforschung. 2008;62(6):653–8.
Samuel R, Cao S, Das BK, Hu F, Pu Y, Ragauskas AJ. Investigation of the fate of poplar lignin during autohydrolysis pretreatment to understand the biomass recalcitrance. Rsc Advances. 2013;3(16):5305–9.
Overend RP, Chornet E, Gascoigne J. Fractionation of lignocellulosics by steam-aqueous pretreatments [and discussion]. Philos Trans Royal Soc London. 1987;321(1561):523–36.
Kumar R, Hu F, Hubbell CA, Ragauskas AJ, Wyman CE. Comparison of laboratory delignification methods, their selectivity, and impacts on physiochemical characteristics of cellulosic biomass. Biores Technol. 2013;130:372–81.
Yoo CG, Pu Y, Li M, Ragauskas AJ. Elucidating structural characteristics of biomass using solution-state 2 D NMR with a mixture of deuterated dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide. Chemsuschem. 2016;9(10):1090–5.
Hu Z, Yeh T-F, Chang H-m, Matsumoto Y, Kadla JF. Elucidation of the structure of cellulolytic enzyme lignin. Holzforschung. 2006;60(4):389–97.
Cao S, Pu Y, Studer M, Wyman C, Ragauskas AJ. Chemical transformations of Populus trichocarpa during dilute acid pretreatment. RSC Adv. 2012;2(29):10925–36.
Mansfield SD, Kim H, Lu F, Ralph J. Whole plant cell wall characterization using solution-state 2D NMR. Nat Protoc. 2012;7(9):1579–89.
Kim H, Ralph J. A gel-state 2D-NMR method for plant cell wall profiling and analysis: a model study with the amorphous cellulose and xylan from ball-milled cotton linters. Rsc Advances. 2014;4(15):7549–60.
José C, Lino AG, Colodette JL, Lima CF, Gutiérrez A, Martínez ÁT, Lu F, Ralph J, Rencoret J. Differences in the chemical structure of the lignins from sugarcane bagasse and straw. Biomass Bioenergy. 2015;81:322–38.