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Table 2 Compositions of LCC fractions from wood and herbaceous plants

From: Lignin–carbohydrate complexes: properties, applications, analyses, and methods of extraction: a review

LCC fraction Relative composition of LCC fraction, % Relative carbohydrate composition, %
Acid-soluble lignin Total carbohydrates Ara Xyl Man Gal Glu
Softwood (Spruce) [19]
 GGM–L–Pectin 39 56.9 5.6a 4.2a 58.9a 22.1a 9.1a
 GM–L–Xyl 56 36.8 3.3a 8.4a 52.2a 10.9a 25.3a
 Glu–L 7 89.8 1.1a 1.0a 2.8a 0.22a 94.9a
 GM–L–Xyl 41 51.8 1.3a 6.2a 64.7a 3.5a 24.1a
 Xyl–L–GM 65 32 9.7a 58.4a 13.4a 7.2a 11.2a
 Xyl–L–GM 29 59.1 6.9a 59.0a 24.0a 7.11a 2.9a
Softwood (Spruce) [17]
 Glu–L 19.3 80.7 1.9 2.5 8.6 1.2 85.8
 GM–L 29.2 70.8 4.7 10.6 30.9 4.4 49.4
 Xyl–L 42.7 57.3 13.0 65.3 3.2 3.0 15.6
Hardwood (Eucalyptus globules) [31]
 Glu–Xyl–L 14.2/15.8a 85.8/84.2a,b 0.6/0.7 18.1/18.9 2.3/2.2 1.3/1.5 77.2/76.3
 Xyl–Glu–L 34.7/39.6a 60.4/65.3a,b 2.0/2.2 42.7/44.4 2.9/3.3 4.1/4.9 44.6/47.1
Hardwood (Eucalyptus globules) [20]
 Xyl–Glu–L 29.0 71c 1.2 40.8 10.4 8.0 39.6
 Glu–Xyl–L 53.2 46.8c 5.4 19.2 6.7 6.7 62
 Glu–L 9.5 90.5c 0.8 4.8 0.6 0.5 94.1
 Xyl–L 37.5 62.5c 1.1 91.3 2.7 1.9 3.0
 Xyl–Glu–L 13.8 86.2c 0 58.7 12.1 2.3 26.9
Hardwood (Betula verrucosa) [20]
 Glu–Xyl–L 29.2 70.8c 0 41.7 11.8 10.0 36.6
 Glu–Xyl–L 15.9 84.1c 0.9 16.2 0.5 0.7 81.7
 Xyl–L–Gal 35.8 64.2c 1.0 75.9 2.2 2.7 18.2
Herbaceous plant (Maize stem) [83]
 Xyl–L–Ara 38.3 50.3 10.5 83.0 ND 07 6.4
 Xyl–L–Glu 18.7 70.7 5.9 82.6 ND 07 11.5
Herbaceous plant (Sisal) [85]
 Glu–L 7.8 92.2c 1.5 9.0 0.9 0.2 88.4
 Xyl–L 24.1 75.9c 0.6 89.4 2.6 0.3 7.1
Herbaceous plant (Abaca) [85]
 Glu–L 4.4 95.6c 0.3 4.1 0.5 0.1 95.0
 Xyl–L 29.4 70.6c 3.4 75.5 13.0 0.3 7.8
Not fractionated LCC from herbaceous plants
 LCC-AcOH (Bamboo) [25] 19.9 48 3.8 32.9 3.1 1.0 59.2
 Björkman LCC (A. donax) [24] 34.8 65.2 6.2 59.2 0.1 3.3 28.9
 Björkman LCC (Wheat straw) [23] 16.03 75.1a 9.3a 75.1a 2.2a 0a 13.4a
 LCC-WE (Rice straw) [82] 27.7 63.9 13 80.1 0.4 2.3 13
  1. aConverted to % based on the data presented in the source
  2. b12/24 h of ball milling
  3. cCalculated by authors by subtraction the portion of lignin (%) presented in the LCC fraction from 100%