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  1. Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important dat...

    Authors: Germano Siqueira, Adriane MF Milagres, Walter Carvalho, Gerald Koch and André Ferraz
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:7
  2. Enzymatic biodiesel production by transesterification in solvent media has been investigated intensively, but glycerol, as a by-product, could block the immobilized enzyme and excess n-hexane, as a solution aid, ...

    Authors: Yonghong Meng, Guili Wang, Na Yang, Zhiqi Zhou, Yuejuan Li, Xiaomei Liang, Jinnan Chen, Ying Li and Jilun Li
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:6
  3. High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretre...

    Authors: Dahai Gao, Nirmal Uppugundla, Shishir PS Chundawat, Xiurong Yu, Spencer Hermanson, Krishne Gowda, Phillip Brumm, David Mead, Venkatesh Balan and Bruce E Dale
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:5
  4. The discovery and development of novel plant cell wall degrading enzymes is a key step towards more efficient depolymerization of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars for the production of liquid transportati...

    Authors: Brian C King, Katrina D Waxman, Nicholas V Nenni, Larry P Walker, Gary C Bergstrom and Donna M Gibson
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:4
  5. A range of lignocellulosic feedstocks (including agricultural, softwood and hardwood substrates) were pretreated with either sulfur dioxide-catalyzed steam or an ethanol organosolv procedure to try to establis...

    Authors: Valdeir Arantes and Jack N Saddler
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:3
  6. Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the te...

    Authors: Nóra Szijártó, Emma Horan, Junhua Zhang, Terhi Puranen, Matti Siika-aho and Liisa Viikari
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:2
  7. The glycoside hydrolase family 5 endocellulase, E1 (Cel5A), from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was transformed into both Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays with expression targeted to the cell wall under a constitutive...

    Authors: Roman Brunecky, Michael J Selig, Todd B Vinzant, Michael E Himmel, David Lee, Michael J Blaylock and Stephen R Decker
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:1
  8. Lignin is embedded in the plant cell wall matrix, and impedes the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. To investigate whether enzymatic digestibility of cell wall materials can be improved...

    Authors: Xu Li, Eduardo Ximenes, Youngmi Kim, Mary Slininger, Richard Meilan, Michael Ladisch and Clint Chapple
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:27
  9. Degradation of the toxic compounds generated in the harsh pretreatment of lignocellulose is an inevitable step in reducing the toxin level for conducting practical enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation...

    Authors: Jian Zhang, Zhinan Zhu, Xiaofeng Wang, Nan Wang, Wei Wang and Jie Bao
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:26
  10. Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar...

    Authors: Jane Lindedam, Sander Bruun, Henning Jørgensen, Claus Felby and Jakob Magid
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:25
  11. Cell wall resistance represents the main barrier for the production of second generation biofuels. The deconstruction of lignocellulose can provide sugars for the production of fuels or other industrial produc...

    Authors: Leonardo D Gomez, Caragh Whitehead, Abdellah Barakate, Claire Halpin and Simon J McQueen-Mason
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:23
  12. Enzymes for plant cell wall deconstruction are a major cost in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of this research was to develop optimized synthetic mixtures of enzymes for multi...

    Authors: Goutami Banerjee, Suzana Car, John S Scott-Craig, Melissa S Borrusch and Jonathan D Walton
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:22
  13. The complex technology of converting lignocellulose to fuels such as ethanol has advanced rapidly over the past few years, and enzymes are a critical component of this technology. The production of effective e...

    Authors: Suzanne E Lantz, Frits Goedegebuur, Ronald Hommes, Thijs Kaper, Bradley R Kelemen, Colin Mitchinson, Louise Wallace, Jerry Ståhlberg and Edmundo A Larenas
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:20
  14. Overexpression of the PGM2 gene encoding phosphoglucomutase (Pgm2p) has been shown to improve galactose utilization both under aerobic and under anaerobic conditions. Similarly, xylose utilization has been improv...

    Authors: Rosa Garcia Sanchez, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal and Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:19
  15. It is important to generate biofuels and society must be weaned from its dependency on fossil fuels. In order to produce biofuels, lignocellulose is pretreated and the resulting cellulose is hydrolyzed by cell...

    Authors: Gernot Jäger, Zhuojun Wu, Kerstin Garschhammer, Philip Engel, Tobias Klement, Roberto Rinaldi, Antje C Spiess and Jochen Büchs
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:18
  16. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) has been recognized as a feasible option for ethanol production from xylose-rich lignocellulosic materials. To reach high ethanol concentration in the b...

    Authors: Kim Olofsson, Benny Palmqvist and Gunnar Lidén
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:17
  17. Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of t...

    Authors: Borbála Erdei, Zsolt Barta, Bálint Sipos, Kati Réczey, Mats Galbe and Guido Zacchi
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:16
  18. The two-step dilute acid hydrolysis (DAH) of softwood is costly in energy demands and capital costs. However, it has the advantage that hydrolysis and subsequent removal of hemicellulose-derived sugars can be ...

    Authors: Peter Bösch, Ola Wallberg, Elisabeth Joelsson, Mats Galbe and Guido Zacchi
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:15
  19. To make lignocellulosic fuel ethanol economically competitive with fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the production cost. One way to achieve this is by increasing the substrate concentration in the produ...

    Authors: Kerstin Hoyer, Mats Galbe and Guido Zacchi
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:14
  20. Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to...

    Authors: Rosa Garcia Sanchez, Kaisa Karhumaa, César Fonseca, Violeta Sànchez Nogué, João RM Almeida, Christer U Larsson, Oskar Bengtsson, Maurizio Bettiga, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal and Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:13
  21. Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and ferme...

    Authors: Qianjun Shao, Shishir PS Chundawat, Chandraraj Krishnan, Bryan Bals, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Kurt D Thelen, Bruce E Dale and Venkatesh Balan
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:12
  22. Fermentations using Escherichia coli KO11, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST), and Zymomonas mobilis AX101 are compared side-by-side on corn steep liquor (CSL) media and the water extract and enzymatic hydroly...

    Authors: Ming W Lau, Christa Gunawan, Venkatesh Balan and Bruce E Dale
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:11
  23. Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques inc...

    Authors: Sunkyu Park, John O Baker, Michael E Himmel, Philip A Parilla and David K Johnson
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:10
  24. Grasses are relatively recalcitrant to genetic transformation in comparison to certain dicotyledons, yet they constitute some of the most important biofuel crops. Genetic transformation of switchgrass (Panicum vi...

    Authors: Xinlu Chen, Raymie Equi, Holly Baxter, Kyle Berk, Jin Han, Sujata Agarwal and Janice Zale
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:9
  25. US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running...

    Authors: NP Nghiem, KB Hicks, DB Johnston, G Senske, M Kurantz, M Li, J Shetty and G Konieczny-Janda
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:8
  26. The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C...

    Authors: Viridiana Ferreira-Leitão, Clarissa Cruz Perrone, Joice Rodrigues, Ana Paula Machado Franke, Stefano Macrelli and Guido Zacchi
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:7
  27. Different mechanistic models have been used in the literature to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. Although these different models have been applied to different substrates, most of thes...

    Authors: Russell F Brown, Frank K Agbogbo and Mark T Holtzapple
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:6
  28. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is still considered as one of the main limiting steps of the biological production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a complex multistep process, and various...

    Authors: Marie Chauve, Hugues Mathis, Delphine Huc, Dominique Casanave, Frédéric Monot and Nicolas Lopes Ferreira
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:3
  29. Biofuels offer a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuel. However, current methods are not sufficient and the technology required in order to use lignocellulosic biomass as a fermentation substrate faces se...

    Authors: Sandra A Allen, William Clark, J Michael McCaffery, Zhen Cai, Alison Lanctot, Patricia J Slininger, Z Lewis Liu and Steven W Gorsich
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:2
  30. When producing biofuels from dedicated feedstock, agronomic factors such as harvest time and location can impact the downstream production. Thus, this paper studies the effectiveness of ammonia fibre expansion...

    Authors: Bryan Bals, Chad Rogers, Mingjie Jin, Venkatesh Balan and Bruce Dale
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2010 3:1
  31. In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to...

    Authors: A Maarten J Kootstra, Hendrik H Beeftink, Elinor L Scott and Johan PM Sanders
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:31
  32. Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using...

    Authors: Ming W Lau, Christa Gunawan and Bruce E Dale
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:30
  33. Corn stover composition changes considerably throughout the growing season and also varies between the various fractions of the plant. These differences can impact optimal pretreatment conditions, enzymatic di...

    Authors: Rebecca J Garlock, Shishir PS Chundawat, Venkatesh Balan and Bruce E Dale
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:29
  34. Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, t...

    Authors: Christine M Roche, Clare J Dibble and Jonathan J Stickel
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:28
  35. Termite lignocellulose digestion is achieved through a collaboration of host plus prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts. In the present work, we took a combined host and symbiont metatranscriptomic approach for...

    Authors: Aurélien Tartar, Marsha M Wheeler, Xuguo Zhou, Monique R Coy, Drion G Boucias and Michael E Scharf
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:25
  36. Bioethanol isolated from lignocellulosic biomass represents one of the most promising renewable and carbon neutral alternative liquid fuel sources. Enzymatic saccharification using cellulase has proven to be a...

    Authors: Tatsuya Fujii, Xu Fang, Hiroyuki Inoue, Katsuji Murakami and Shigeki Sawayama
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:24
  37. Mary E H Mandels, who spearheaded the US Army's national bioconversion studies for four decades and was an early proponent of conversion of waste biomass to readily bioconvertible sugars for the production of ...

    Authors: Fred Allen, Raymond Andreotti, Douglas E Eveleigh and John Nystrom
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:22
  38. This article sets forth a simple cellulase assay procedure. Cellulose is variable in nature, insoluble and resistant to enzymatic attack. As a result there have been a bevy of bewildering cellulase assays publ...

    Authors: Douglas E Eveleigh, Mary Mandels, Raymond Andreotti and Charles Roche
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:21
  39. This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publicati...

    Authors: Mary Mandels and Douglas E Eveleigh
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:20
  40. Hypocrea jecorina (= Trichoderma reesei) is the main industrial source of cellulases and hemicellulases used to depolymerise plant biomass to simple sugars that are converted to chemical intermediates and biofuel...

    Authors: Christian P Kubicek, Marianna Mikus, André Schuster, Monika Schmoll and Bernhard Seiboth
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:19
  41. Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or ...

    Authors: Wayne W Fish, Benny D Bruton and Vincent M Russo
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:18
  42. Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol...

    Authors: Volkmar Passoth, Anna Eriksson, Mats Sandgren, Jerry Ståhlberg, Kathleen Piens and Johan Schnürer
    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2009 2:16