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  1. The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is a major constraint to its high-value use at industrial scale. In nature, microbes play a crucial role in biomass degradation, nutrient recycling and ecosystem fu...

    Authors: Sivasamy Sethupathy, Gabriel Murillo Morales, Yixuan Li, Yongli Wang, Jianxiong Jiang, Jianzhong Sun and Daochen Zhu

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:154

    Content type: Review

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  2. Sugarcane processing roughly generates 54 million tonnes sugarcane bagasse (SCB)/year, making SCB an important material for upgrading to value-added molecules. In this study, an integrated scheme was developed...

    Authors: Leila Khaleghipour, Javier A. Linares-Pastén, Hamid Rashedi, Seyed Omid Ranaei Siadat, Andrius Jasilionis, Said Al-Hamimi, Roya R. R. Sardari and Eva Nordberg Karlsson

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:153

    Content type: Research

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  3. Sugarcane is an essential crop for sugar and ethanol production. Immediate processing of sugarcane is necessary after harvested because of rapid sucrose losses and deterioration of stalks. This study was condu...

    Authors: Na Peng, Ziting Yao, Ziting Wang, Jiangfeng Huang, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Baoshan Chen and Muqing Zhang

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:152

    Content type: Research

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  4. Hydrogen peroxide–acetic acid (HPAA) is widely used in pretreatment of lignocellulose because it has a good capability in selective delignification. However, high concentration (more than 60%) of HPAA increase...

    Authors: Peiyao Wen, Ying Zhang, Junjun Zhu, Yong Xu and Junhua Zhang

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:151

    Content type: Research

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  5. Ascomycetous yeasts from the kingdom fungi inhabit every biome in nature. While filamentous fungi have been studied extensively regarding their enzymatic degradation of the complex polymers comprising lignocel...

    Authors: Jonas L. Ravn, Martin K. M. Engqvist, Johan Larsbrink and Cecilia Geijer

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:150

    Content type: Research

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  6. In biological cells, promoters drive gene expression by specific binding of RNA polymerase. They determine the starting position, timing and level of gene expression. Therefore, rational fine-tuning of promote...

    Authors: Yu Zhao, Shiqi Liu, Zhihui Lu, Baixiang Zhao, Shuhui Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Dongguang Xiao, Jee Loon Foo and Aiqun Yu

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:149

    Content type: Research

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  7. Lipomyces starkeyi has been widely regarded as a promising oleaginous yeast with broad industrial application prospects because of its wide substrate spectrum, good adaption to fermentation inhibitors, excellent ...

    Authors: Wei Zhou, Yanan Wang, Junlu Zhang, Man Zhao, Mou Tang, Wenting Zhou and Zhiwei Gong

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:148

    Content type: Research

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  8. Plant monoterpenoids with structural diversities have extensive applications in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Due to the strong dependence on the geographical locations and seasonal annual gr...

    Authors: Dengwei Lei, Zetian Qiu, Jianjun Qiao and Guang-Rong Zhao

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:147

    Content type: Review

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  9. The model ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has many advantages for diverse biochemical production. Although the impact of temperature especially high temperature on the growth and ethanol production of Z...

    Authors: Runxia Li, Wei Shen, Yongfu Yang, Jun Du, Mian Li and Shihui Yang

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:146

    Content type: Research

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  10. Succinic acid (SA) is a crucial metabolic intermediate and platform chemical. Development of biobased processes to achieve sustainable SA production has attracted more and more attention in biotechnology indus...

    Authors: Zhennan Jiang, Zhiyong Cui, Ziwei Zhu, Yinghang Liu, Ya-jie Tang, Jin Hou and Qingsheng Qi

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:145

    Content type: Research

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  11. Identifying lignocellulose recalcitrant factors and exploring their genetic properties are essential for enhanced biomass enzymatic saccharification in bioenergy crops. Despite genetic modification of major wa...

    Authors: Zhen Hu, Youmei Wang, Jingyuan Liu, Yuqi Li, Yanting Wang, Jiangfeng Huang, Yuanhang Ai, Peng Chen, Yuqing He, Muhammad Nauman Aftab, Lingqiang Wang and Liangcai Peng

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:144

    Content type: Research

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  12. During the dilute acid pretreatment process, the resulting pseudo-lignin and lignin droplets deposited on the surface of lignocellulose and inhibit the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in lignocellulose. H...

    Authors: Wenqian Lin, Jinlai Yang, Yayue Zheng, Caoxing Huang and Qiang Yong

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:143

    Content type: Research

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  13. In plants, a large diversity of polysaccharides comprise the cell wall. Each major type of plant cell wall polysaccharide, including cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, has distinct structures and functions ...

    Authors: William J. Barnes, Sabina Koj, Ian M. Black, Stephanie A. Archer-Hartmann, Parastoo Azadi, Breeanna R. Urbanowicz, Maria J. Peña and Malcolm A. O’Neill

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:142

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. Salix (willow) species represent an important source of bioenergy and offer great potential for producing biofuels. Salix spp. like many hardwoods, produce tension wood (TW) characterized by special fibres (G-fib...

    Authors: Jie Gao, Mohamed Jebrane, Nasko Terziev and Geoffrey Daniel

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:141

    Content type: Research

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  15. The carbohydrate polymers that encapsulate plants cells have benefited humans for centuries and have valuable biotechnological uses. In the past 5 years, exciting possibilities have emerged in the engineering ...

    Authors: Madalen Robert, Julian Waldhauer, Fabian Stritt, Bo Yang, Markus Pauly and Cătălin Voiniciuc

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:140

    Content type: Research

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  16. Biomass valorization has been suggested as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based energy and commodities. In this context, the copper radical oxidases (CROs) from Auxiliary Activity Family 5/Subfamily 2 ...

    Authors: Maria Cleveland, Mickael Lafond, Fan Roderick Xia, Ryan Chung, Paul Mulyk, Jason E. Hein and Harry Brumer

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:138

    Content type: Research

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  17. Cellulose is not only a common component in vascular plants, but also has great economic benefits for paper, wood, and industrial products. In addition, its biosynthesis is highly regulated by carbohydrate met...

    Authors: Jing Su, Chunxia Zhang, Lingcheng Zhu, Nanxiang Yang, Jingjing Yang, Baiquan Ma, Fengwang Ma and Mingjun Li

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:137

    Content type: Research

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  18. Ethanol organosolv (EOS) pretreatment is one of the most efficient methods for boosting biomass saccharification as it can achieve an efficient fractionation of three major constituents in lignocellulose. Howe...

    Authors: Qiulu Chu, Wenyao Tong, Jianqiang Chen, Shufang Wu, Yongcan Jin, Jinguang Hu and Kai Song

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:136

    Content type: Research

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  19. Pretreatment is a critical step required for efficient conversion of woody biomass into biofuels and platform chemicals. Fungal pretreatment is regarded as one of the most promising technology for woody biomas...

    Authors: Jiangshan Ma, Huimin Yue, Hongqian Li, Jing Zhang, Yanghong Zhang, Xiaoling Wang, Si Gong and Gao-Qiang Liu

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:135

    Content type: Research

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  20. Cellodextrin phosphorylase (CdP; EC 2.4.1.49) catalyzes the iterative β-1,4-glycosylation of cellobiose using α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as the donor substrate. Cello-oligosaccharides (COS) with a degree of polymeri...

    Authors: Mario Klimacek, Chao Zhong and Bernd Nidetzky

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:134

    Content type: Research

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  21. Microalgae-based high-density fuels offer an efficient and environmental pathway towards decarbonization of the transport sector and could be produced as part of a globally distributed network without competin...

    Authors: John Roles, Jennifer Yarnold, Karen Hussey and Ben Hankamer

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:133

    Content type: Research

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  22. Microalgae can contribute to more than 40% of global primary biomass production and are suitable candidates for various biotechnology applications such as food, feed products, drugs, fuels, and wastewater trea...

    Authors: Mingcan Wu, Ming Du, Guimei Wu, Feimiao Lu, Jing Li, Anping Lei, Hui Zhu, Zhangli Hu and Jiangxin Wang

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:132

    Content type: Research

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  23. Biomass-degrading enzymes with improved activity and stability can increase substrate saccharification and make biorefineries economically feasible. Filamentous fungi are a rich source of carbohydrate-active e...

    Authors: Monika Tõlgo, Silvia Hüttner, Peter Rugbjerg, Nguyen Thanh Thuy, Vu Nguyen Thanh, Johan Larsbrink and Lisbeth Olsson

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:131

    Content type: Research

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  24. Some microorganisms can respire with extracellular electron acceptors using an extended electron transport chain to the cell surface. This process can be applied in bioelectrochemical systems in which the orga...

    Authors: Miriam Edel, Gunnar Sturm, Katrin Sturm-Richter, Michael Wagner, Julia Novion Ducassou, Yohann Couté, Harald Horn and Johannes Gescher

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:130

    Content type: Research

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  25. The overwhelming concerns due to over exploitation of fossil resources necessitate the utilization of alternative energy resources. Biodiesel has been considered as one of the most adaptable alternative to fos...

    Authors: Mustafa Kamal Pasha, Lingmei Dai, Dehua Liu, Miao Guo and Wei Du

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:129

    Content type: Review

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  26. Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) represent a novel family of heme peroxidases that use H2O2 as the final electron acceptor to catalyze the oxidation of various organic compounds. A DyP from Irpex lacteus F17 (

    Authors: Liuqing Li, Tao Wang, Taohua Chen, Wenhan Huang, Yinliang Zhang, Rong Jia and Chao He

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:128

    Content type: Research

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  27. Nowadays there is a strong trend towards a circular economy using lignocellulosic biowaste for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. The use of enzymes at several stages of the production pr...

    Authors: Lisanne Hameleers, Leena Penttinen, Martina Ikonen, Léa Jaillot, Régis Fauré, Nicolas Terrapon, Peter J. Deuss, Nina Hakulinen, Emma R. Master and Edita Jurak

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:127

    Content type: Research

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  28. β-Glucosidases are essential for cellulose hydrolysis by catalyzing the final cellulolytic degradation of cello-oligomers and cellobiose to glucose. D2-BGL is a fungal glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) β-gluc...

    Authors: Mu-Rong Kao, Su-May Yu and Tuan-H ua David Ho

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:126

    Content type: Research

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  29. During the acetogenic step of anaerobic digestion, the products of acidogenesis are oxidized to substrates for methanogenesis: hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate. Acetogenesis and methanogenesis are highly i...

    Authors: Anna Detman, Michał Bucha, Laura Treu, Aleksandra Chojnacka, Łukasz Pleśniak, Agnieszka Salamon, Ewa Łupikasza, Robert Gromadka, Jan Gawor, Agnieszka Gromadka, Wojciech Drzewicki, Marta Jakubiak, Marek Janiga, Irena Matyasik, Mieczysław K. Błaszczyk, Mariusz Orion Jędrysek…

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:125

    Content type: Research

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  30. Microbial oils, generated from lignocellulosic material, have great potential as renewable and sustainable alternatives to fossil-based fuels and chemicals. By unravelling the diversity of lipid accumulation p...

    Authors: Jule Brandenburg, Johanna Blomqvist, Volha Shapaval, Achim Kohler, Sabine Sampels, Mats Sandgren and Volkmar Passoth

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:124

    Content type: Research

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  31. Sugarcane is one of the most crucial energy crops that produces high yields of sugar and lignocellulose. The cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and lignin are the two kinds of key cell wall features that acco...

    Authors: Xinru Li, Fumin Ma, Chengping Liang, Maoyao Wang, Yan Zhang, Yufei Shen, Muhammad Adnan, Pan Lu, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Jiangfeng Huang and Muqing Zhang

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:123

    Content type: Research

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  32. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are attracting large attention due their ability to degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides in biomass conversion and to perform powerful redox chemistry.

    Authors: Lukas Rieder, Katharina Ebner, Anton Glieder and Morten Sørlie

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:122

    Content type: Research

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  33. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model green alga strain for molecular studies; its fully sequenced genome has enabled omic-based analyses that have been applied to better understand its metabolic responses to stre...

    Authors: E. Hounslow, C. A. Evans, J. Pandhal, T. Sydney, N. Couto, T. K. Pham, D. James Gilmour and P. C. Wright

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:121

    Content type: Research

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  34. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are essential for agricultural waste disposal and production of renewable bioenergy. Many commercialized cellulase mixtures have been developed, mostly from saprophytic or endophytic ...

    Authors: Meng-Chun Lin, Hsion-Wen Kuo, Mu-Rong Kao, Wen-Dar Lin, Chen-Wei Li, Kuo-Sheng Hung, Sheng-Chih Yang, Su-May Yu and Tuan-Hua David Ho

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:120

    Content type: Research

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  35. The algal lipids-based biodiesel, albeit having advantages over plant oils, still remains high in the production cost. Co-production of value-added products with lipids has the potential to add benefits and is...

    Authors: Yu Zhang, Ying Ye, Fan Bai and Jin Liu

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:119

    Content type: Review

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  36. Xylan is the most abundant hemicellulose polysaccharide in nature, which can be converted into high value-added products. However, its recalcitrance to breakdown requires the synergistic action of multiple enz...

    Authors: Shu Zhang, Sha Zhao, Weihao Shang, Zijuan Yan, Xiuyun Wu, Yingjie Li, Guanjun Chen, Xinli Liu and Lushan Wang

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:118

    Content type: Research

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  37. The interest in using methanol as a substrate to cultivate acetogens increased in recent years since it can be sustainably produced from syngas and has the additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissio...

    Authors: Maximilian Flaiz, Gideon Ludwig, Frank R. Bengelsdorf and Peter Dürre

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:117

    Content type: Research

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  38. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can identify and quantify thousands of proteins from individual microbial species, but a significant percentage of these proteins are unannotated and hence classified as prot...

    Authors: Suresh Poudel, Alexander L. Cope, Kaela B. O’Dell, Adam M. Guss, Hyeongmin Seo, Cong T. Trinh and Robert L. Hettich

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:116

    Content type: Research

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  39. Plant-biomass-based nanomaterials have attracted great interest recently for their potential to replace petroleum-sourced polymeric materials for sustained economic development. However, challenges associated ...

    Authors: J. Y. Zhu, Umesh P. Agarwal, Peter N. Ciesielski, Michael E. Himmel, Runan Gao, Yulin Deng, Maria Morits and Monika Österberg

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:114

    Content type: Review

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  40. Lipids are important precursors in the biofuel and oleochemical industries. Yarrowia lipolytica is among the most extensively studied oleaginous microorganisms and has been a focus of metabolic engineering to imp...

    Authors: Annapurna Kamineni, Andrew L. Consiglio, Kyle MacEwen, Shuyan Chen, Gamuchirai Chifamba, A. Joe Shaw and Vasiliki Tsakraklides

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:113

    Content type: Research

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  41. Zymomonas mobilis is an aerotolerant α-proteobacterium, which has been genetically engineered for industrial purposes for decades. However, a comprehensive comparison of existing strains on the genomic level in c...

    Authors: Magdalena M. Felczak, Robert M. Bowers, Tanja Woyke and Michaela A. TerAvest

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:112

    Content type: Research

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  42. The biomanufacturing of d-glucaric acid has attracted increasing interest because it is one of the top value-added chemicals produced from biomass. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regarded as an excellent host for d-

    Authors: Chaofeng Li, Xiaofeng Lin, Xing Ling, Shuo Li and Hao Fang

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:110

    Content type: Research

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  43. An efficient supply of reducing equivalent is essential for chemicals production by engineered microbes. In phototrophic microbes, the NADPH generated from photosynthesis is the dominant form of reducing equiv...

    Authors: Hengkai Meng, Wei Zhang, Huawei Zhu, Fan Yang, Yanping Zhang, Jie Zhou and Yin Li

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:109

    Content type: Research

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  44. Lignin peroxidases catalyze a variety of reactions, resulting in cleavage of both β-O-4′ ether bonds and C–C bonds in lignin, both of which are essential for depolymerizing lignin into fragments amendable to b...

    Authors: Le Thanh Mai Pham, Kai Deng, Trent R. Northen, Steven W. Singer, Paul D. Adams, Blake A. Simmons and Kenneth L. Sale

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:108

    Content type: Research

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  45. During the biomass-to-bio-oil conversion process, many studies focus on studying the association between biomass and bio-products using near-infrared spectra (NIR) and chemical analysis methods. However, the c...

    Authors: Chao Yin, Xiaohua Deng, Zhiqiang Yu, Zechun Liu, Hongxiang Zhong, Ruting Chen, Guohua Cai, Quanxing Zheng, Xiucai Liu, Jiawei Zhong, Pengfei Ma, Wei He, Kai Lin, Qiaoling Li and Anan Wu

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:106

    Content type: Research

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  46. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are an essential component of sustainable inland seafood production. Still, nutrient removal from these systems can result in substantial environmental problems, or pres...

    Authors: Andreas Heyland, Jordan Roszell, Jeremy Chau, Kevin Chai, Andrew Eaton, Kathleen Nolan, Kyle Madden and Wael H. Ahmed

    Citation: Biotechnology for Biofuels 2021 14:104

    Content type: Research

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